In this article we are going to find out what osteoporosis is, what are the symptoms, what causes and treatments. Obviously we will start from the base, going to understand what osteoporosis is.
What is osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease that affects the bones, specifically a degenerative alteration of the bones that is characterized by the decrease, in quantity and quality, of the bone tissue. To do it "simple" it is characterized by loss of strength and bone density. This deterioration of the bone tissue leads to an increase in fractures, where the fragility increases.
It is no coincidence that the name leads back to porous bone, precisely because the bone affected by osteoporosis, when viewed under a microscope, it presents a honeycomb with much larger holes and spaces than the natural condition of the bone.
It is a very common pathology that can affect both men and women and in most cases affects the spine, hips and wrist.
In the next chapter we will find out which ones are symptoms and risk factors of this pathology.
Osteoporosis, when to worry?
In the previous chapter we found out what it is, but now we are going to discover osteoporosis as it manifests itself.
The symptoms that can make you understand if you have been affected by osteoporosis are many:
- Neck pain
- Bone pain
- Muscular pains
- Back pain
- Pain in the hip
- Bone fractures
- Sore legs
- Kidney stones
- Hand and wrist pain
- Knee pain
Among the main symptoms however we find fractures of frequent bones, back pain, decreased body size and change in posture
Unfortunately, however, it often happens that osteoporosis, especially in the early years, it develops without symptoms and it is the traumas to the bones that make the disease diagnose. For this reason, in the case of bone fractures over the age of 50, you must ask your doctor for a test to make sure that it is not osteoporosis.
THEOsteoporosis can be defined primary o secondary. In the first case when it is associated with the physiological depletion of bone mass, in the second, however, if associated with different conditions such as: drugs, blood-related diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and endocrine diseases.
It is also divided into: senile, following aging, e postmenopausal, caused by estrogen deficiency.
Other causes of osteoporosis include: alcohol, coffee, smoking, lack of calcium, lack of movement and thinness, which result in reduced mechanical stimulation on the bone.
First of all, it is necessary to know that osteoporosis cannot be cured, but it can be countered and prevented to stop or slow down its progression. Let's find out how.
The first thing to know is that, to treat it, you need to use specific drugs that have the function of slowing down the loss of bone density. Obviously, before starting a drug treatment, you must consult a doctor and he will decide if this is the case or not and above all the type of treatment.
Mainly, the drugs that are administered to counter osteoporosis are divided into three specific categories:
- Anabolic agents: they serve to stimulate the formation of a new bone.
- Agents with double mechanism: weakly inhibit bone resorption and weakly stimulate new bone formation.
- Anti-resorbing agents: reduce bone resorption
In the case of mild osteoporosis or simple osteopenia, medication can be avoided and only vitamin D and calcium supplements may be given. However, calcium and vitamin D supplements must always be associated with drugs as it is proven that they are very important to maximize their effectiveness.
At the base of everything, both in the case of supplements and drugs, there must be a lifestyle appropriate to the health of one's bones. In fact, it is important to take care of nutrition with a diet rich in milk, have a weight suitable for your body size, imitate the use of alcohol and cigarettes, and perform regular physical activity.
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